With a mainland surface area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,518 sq mi), Argentina is located in southern South America, sharing land borders with Chile across the Andes to the west; Bolivia and Paraguay to the north; Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east; and the Drake Passage to the south; for an overall land border length of 9,376 km (5,826 mi). Its coastal border over the Río de la Plata and South Atlantic Ocean is 5,117 km (3,180 mi) long.
Argentina’s highest point is Aconcagua in the Mendoza province (6,959 m (22,831 ft) above sea level), also the highest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres. The lowest point is Laguna del Carbón in the San Julián Great Depression Santa Cruz province (−105 m (−344 ft) below sea level, also the lowest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres, and the seventh lowest point on Earth)
The northernmost point is at the confluence of the Grande de San Juan and Río Mojinete rivers in Jujuy province; the southernmost is Cape San Pío in Tierra del Fuego province; the easternmost is northeast of Bernardo de Irigoyen, Misiones and the westernmost is within Los Glaciares National Park in Santa Cruz province. The maximum north–south distance is 3,694 km (2,295 mi), while the maximum east–west one is 1,423 km (884 mi).
Some of the major rivers are the Paraná, Uruguay—which join to form the Río de la Plata, Paraguay, Salado, Negro, Santa Cruz, Pilcomayo, Bermejo and Colorado. These rivers are discharged into the Argentine Sea, the shallow area of the Atlantic Ocean over the Argentine Shelf, an unusually wide continental platform. Its waters are influenced by two major ocean currents: the warm Brazil Current and the cold Falklands Current.
Argentina’s provinces are divided into 7 zones regarding climate and terrain. From North to South, West to East:
- Argentine Northwest: Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Catamarca, La Rioja
- Gran Chaco: Formosa, Chaco, Santiago del Estero
- Mesopotamia: Misiones, Corrientes
- Cuyo: San Juan, Mendoza, San Luis
- The Pampas: Santa Fe, La Pampa, Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Entre Ríos
- Patagonia: Rio Negro, Neuquén, Chubut, Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego
- Arable land: 13.9%
- Permanent crops: 0.4%
- Permanent pastures: 39.6%
- Forest: 10.7%
- Other: 35.4% (2020)
- Irrigated land: 23,600 km² (2020)
- Total renewable water resources: 814 km3/yr
Mountains and hills
- Aconcagua (Mendoza) 6,962 m
- Nevado El Plomo 6,070 m
- Cerro Ameghino approx. 5,940 m
- Ojos del Salado (Catamarca) 6,893 m
- Tres Cruces Sur 6,748 m
- Cazadero 6,658 m
- El Muerto 6,488 m
- Cerro Nacimiento 6,436 m
- Cerro Veladero 6,436 m
- Cerro El Cóndor (also Volcán Sarmiento) 6,414 m
- Cerro Vallecitos 6,168 m
- Tres Quebradas (also Los Patos) 6,239 m
- Cerro Medusa 6,120 m
- Colorados 6,080 m
- Cerro El Fraile 6,061 m
- Volcán del Viento 6,028 m
- Cerro San Francisco 6,018 m
- Monte Pissis (La Rioja) 6,795 m
- Cerro Bonete (La Rioja) 6,759 m
- Llullaillaco (Salta) 6,723 m
- Socompa 6,051 m
- Mercedario (San Juan) 6,720 m
- Cerro Ramada 6,384 m
- Cerro La Mesa 6,230 m
- Incahuasi (Catamarca) 6,621 m
- Tupungato (Mendoza) 6,570 m
- Cerro Alto 6,148 m
- Cerro Negro (also Pabellón) 6,070 m
- Cerro Polleras 5,993m
- Antofalla (Salta) 6,440 m
- Cachi (Nevado de Cachi) 6,380 m
- Cerro Quemado 6,184 m
- Reclus 6,335 m
- Majadita 6,280 m
- Cerro Olivares 6,216 m
- Cerro Solo 6,205 m
- Cerro El Toro (San Juan) 6,168 m
- Cerro Tortolas 6,160 m
- Queva 6,140 m
- Colangüil 6,122 m
- Marmolejo 6,108 m
- Medusa 6,130 m
- Nevado de Famatina (also Cerro Belgrano) 6,097 m
- Aracar 6,095m
- Cerro Baboso (also Veladero N.E.) approx. 6,070 m
- Cerro Salin (Salín) 6,029 m
- Cerro Laguna Blanca 6,012 m
- Cerro Plata (Mendoza) 5,955 m
- Cerro Chañi (Jujuy) approx. 5,930 m
- Galán (Catamarca) 5,920 m
Volcanoes in Argentina
|Agua Poca||Cinder Cone||657||2,156||600,000 years ago|
|Aguas Calientes||Caldera||4,473||14,675||200,000 years ago|
|Aguiliri||Lava Dome Complex||12.7 mya|
|Antilla||Complex volcano||4.67 mya|
|Antofagasta de la Sierra||Volcanic field||4,000||13,123||Unknown|
|Arizaro volcanic field||Volcanic field||80,000 ± 60,000 years before present|
|Barro Negro||Cinder Cone||>6.6 mya|
|Cerro Beltrán||Stratovolcano||14 mya|
|Caldera del Atuel||Caldera||5,189||17,024||Unknown|
|Casa Colorada||Lava Dome||17 mya|
|Cerro Archibarca||Stratovolcano||11 mya|
|Cerro Bayo||Complex volcano||5,401||17,720||Holocene|
|Cerro Bitiche||Volcanic field||Miocene-Pliocene|
|Cerro de los Chenques||Monogenetic volcano||Holocene|
|Cerro El Cóndor||Stratovolcano||6,532||21,430||Holocene|
|Cerro Morado||Volcanic field||Miocene|
|Cerro Ratones||Stratovolcano||7 mya|
|Cerro Redondo||Lava Dome complex||Miocene|
|Cerros Negros de Jama||Volcanic field|
|Cerro Volcánico||Cinder Cone||1,930||6,332||Holocene|
|Chimpa||Volcanic complex||4,856||4,796||12 mya|
|Chinchillas||Lava Dome Complex||13±1 mya|
|Cochiquito Volcanic Group||Volcanic field||1,435||4,708||Unknown|
|Cordón del Azufre||Complex volcano||5,463||17,923||Unknown|
|Corrida de Cori||Stratovolcano Complex||Holocene?|
|Crater Basalt volcanic field||Volcanic field||1,344||4,409||Holocene?|
|Cueros de Purulla||Lava dome||7820 BP|
|El Toro volcanic field||Volcanic field||Unknown|
|Falso Azufre||Complex volcano||5,890||19,324||Holocene|
|Farallon Negro||Stratovolcano||~6 mya|
|Huanquihue Group||Stratovolcano Complex||1,400?||4,593||1750±100 CE|
|Incapillo||Caldera||5,750||18,860||500,000 years ago|
|Infiernillo||Volcanic field||6890±40 BCE|
|Laguna Amarga||Caldera||4 mya|
|Laguna Escondida||Caldera||3 mya|
|La Hoyada||Volcanic complex||4.42 mya|
|Las Lozas volcanics||320 mya|
|Leon Muerto||Stratovolcano||4,799||15,745||19.9±0.8 mya|
|Los Gemelos-El Saladillo||Monogenetic volcanoes||35,000 years ago|
|Minuyoc||Lava Dome Complex||Unknown|
|Negra Muerta||Caldera||7-6 mya|
|Negro de Chorrillos||Stratovolcano||200,000 ± 150,000 years ago, 450,000 years ago, or 200,000 ± 80,000 years ago|
|Ojos del Salado||Stratovolcano||6,887||22,595||Unknown|
|Pairique volcanic complex||Volcanic complex||Between 11.5 and 10.3 mya|
|Pali-Aike Volcanic Field||Volcanic field||282||925||5550±1000 BCE|
|Pan de Azúcar||Lava Dome Complex|
|Pasto Ventura||Volcanic field||270,000 ± 40,000 years|
|Payún Matrú||Shield Volcano||3,680||12,073||Holocene|
|Pirurayo||Stratovolcano||28±3 and 20±2 mya|
|Planchón-Peteroa||Complex volcano||4,107||13,471||2011 CE|
|Pocho volcanic field||4.7 +- 0.3 million years ago|
|Puesto Cortaderas||Volcanic cone||970||3,182||Holocene|
|Ramadas Volcanic Centre||Volcanic complex||3,800||12,500||8.73±0.25 mya|
|Rincon volcanic complex||Volcanic complex||Miocene|
|San Jerónimo||Cinder Cone||780,000±100,000 years ago|
|Sierra Nevada de Lagunas Bravas||Lava Dome Complex||6,127||20,101||Unknown|
|Tastil volcanic complex||Miocene|
|Trocon||Lava Dome Complex||2,500||8,200||Unknown|
|TulTul, Del Medio and Pocitos||Stratovolcanoes||8-6 million years ago|
|Vicuña Pampa||Volcanic complex||Miocene|
|Viedma||Subglacial volcano||1,500||4,921||1988 CE|
In Argentina, the fluvial net is integrated by many systems of different economic relevance, which could be measured by their amount of flow and navigability. Water flow relevance is based on its potential to be used for irrigation and as a source of energy. Depending on where the water streams drain, rivers and creeks could be classified into three different kinds of watersheds:
- Open or exorheic watersheds: they have exterior drainage (into the sea) – Parana River, Uruguay River, Negro River
- Closed or endorheic watersheds: they have interior drainage – Atuel River, Diamante River, Tunuyan River
- Areic watersheds: they lack drainage and could be found in the center-west of the chaquenean plain, on the west of the Pampean region, and in some Patagonia areas
On the other hand, lakes and lagoons are permanent accumulations of water over impervious depressions. Their difference is mainly based on their extension and depth. They are very important for stream regulation, as a source of energy, tourist attraction, and its ichthyologic wealth. In Argentina, all major lakes are in Patagonia (Carlevari and Carlevari, 2007).
Except in the northeast, there are few large rivers, and many have only seasonal flows. Nearly all watercourses drain eastward toward the Atlantic, but a large number terminate in lakes and swamps or become lost in the thirsty soils of the Pampas and Patagonia. The four major river systems are those that feed into the Río de la Plata estuary, those made up of the Andean streams, those of the central river system, and those of the southern system.
The Paraná, the second-longest river in South America after the Amazon, flows approximately 4,900 km and forms part of the borders between Brazil and Paraguay, and Paraguay and Argentina. Its upper reaches feature many waterfalls. It is joined by the Iguazú River (Río Iguaçu) where it enters Argentina in the northeast. This area is well known throughout the world for the spectacular Iguazú Falls (Cataratas Iguaçu, meaning “great water”). One of the world’s great natural wonders, they are located on the border between Argentina and Brazil with two-thirds of the falls in Argentina. They include approximately 275 falls, ranging between 60 and 80 m high. These falls are higher and wider than Niagara Falls on the border of the United States and Canada. Other tributaries of the Paraná, which feed in from the west, are the Bermejo, Bermejito, Salado, and Carcarañá.
The Uruguay River (1,600 km) forms a part of the borders between Argentina and Brazil and Argentina and Uruguay. It is navigable for about 300 km from its mouth to Concordia. The 2,550-km Paraguay River forms part of the border between Paraguay and Argentina and flows into the Paraná north of Corrientes and Alto Paraná. These all join to flow into the Río de la Plata, and eventually into the Atlantic Ocean in northern Argentina. Where these rivers meet, a wide estuary is formed, which can reach a maximum width of 222 km.
In north-central Argentina, Lake Mar Chiquita is supplied with its water by several rivers. The Dulce River originates near San Miguel de Tucumán and flows southwest into the lake. From the southwest, it is also fed by the Primero and Segundo Rivers.
In the northern Patagonia region, the major rivers are the Colorado and Negro Rivers, both of which rise in the Andes and flow to the Atlantic Ocean. Colorado is fed by the Salado River, which flows from Pico Ojos del Salado in a southeasterly direction to Colorado. Tributaries of the Salado include the Atuel, Diamante, Tunuyán, Desaguadero, and the San Juan, all of which originate in the northwest Andes. The Negro also has two main tributaries of its own, the Neuquén and the Limay. In the central Patagonia region, the Chubut rises in the Andes and flows east to form a sizable lake before making its way to the ocean. The Lake District is also coursed by its share of rivers, all originating in the mountains and flowing to the Atlantic. These include the Deseado, Chico, Santa Cruz, and Gallegos Rivers.
The Los Lagos Region (Lake District), on the border of Chile and Argentina in the Andes mountain region, contains many glacial lakes that are carved out of the mountains then filled by melt-water and rain. The most significant of these is Lago Buenos Aires, also known as General Carrera, located in southern Argentina and shared with Chile. It is the largest lake in the country and the fifth-largest in all of South America with an average surface area of 2,240 km2.
Moving south along the border one would encounter Lago San Martín, Lago Viedma, and finally Lago Argentino, the second largest lake in this region with an area of 1466 km2. Not far from Lake Buenos Aires on the Castillo Plain near Comodoro Rivadavia is Lake Colhue Huapi.
One of the world’s largest salt lakes, and the second largest lake in Argentina, is Lake Mar Chiquita (Little Sea), located in central Argentina. Its surface area varies from year to year and season to season but has in it wettest periods spanned 5,770 km2. The reservoir created by the Chocón dam, located on the Limay river, is one of the country’s largest man-made lakes.
Iberá, in the northeast of Argentina, is a biologically rich region, with more than sixty ponds joined to marshes and swampland. The area is extremely humid and is home to hundreds of bird species and thousands of insects, including a wide variety of butterflies. The area hosts a diverse array of flora and fauna, notably the royal water lily, silk-cotton trees, alligators, and capybara, the largest rodent species in the world.
Argentina is subject to a variety of climates. The north of the country, including latitudes in and below the Tropic of Capricorn, is characterized by very hot, wet summers (which result in a lot of swamplands) with mild drier winters, and is subject to periodic droughts during the winter season.
Central Argentina has hot summers with tornadoes and thunderstorms (in western Argentina producing some of the world’s largest hail) and cool winters. The southern regions have warm summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall, especially in mountainous zones. Higher elevations at all latitudes experience cooler conditions.
- Party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
- Signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
- Location relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)
- Land claims
- Falkland Islands
- South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
- Argentine Antarctica
- Maritime claims on Argentine Sea
- Territorial sea: 12 nmi (22.2 km; 13.8 mi)
- Contiguous zone: 24 nmi (44.4 km; 27.6 mi)
- Exclusive economic zone: 1,159,063 km2 (447,517 sq mi)
- Continental shelf: 200 nmi (370.4 km; 230.2 mi) or to the edge of the continental margin
The National Parks of Argentina make up a network of thirty national parks in Argentina. The parks cover a very varied set of terrains and biotopes, from Baritú National Park on the northern border with Bolivia to Tierra del Fuego National Park in the far south of the continent (see List of national parks of Argentina).
The creation of the National Parks dates back to the 1903 donation of 73 square kilometers of land in the Lake District in the Andes foothills by Francisco Moreno. This formed the nucleus of a larger protected area in Patagonia around San Carlos de Bariloche. In 1934, a law was passed creating the National Parks system, formalizing the protected area as the Nahuel Huapi National Park, and creating the Iguazú National Park. The National Park Police Force was born, enforcing the new laws preventing tree-felling and hunting. Their early task was large to establish national sovereignty over these disputed areas and to protect borders.
Five further national parks were declared in 1937 in Patagonia and the service planned new towns and facilities to promote tourism and education. Six more were declared by 1970.
In 1970 a new law established new categories of protection, so that there now were National Parks, National Monuments, Educational Reserves, and Natural Reserves. Three national parks were declared in the 1970s. In 1980, another new law affirmed the status of national parks – this law is still in place. The 1980s saw the service reaching out to local communities and local government to help in the running and development of the national parks. Ten more national parks were created with local co-operation, sometimes at local instigation. In 2000, Mburucuyá and Copo National Parks were declared, and El Leoncito natural reserve was upgraded to a national park.
The headquarters of the National Park Service is in downtown Buenos Aires, on Santa Fe Avenue. A library and information center are open to the public. The administration also covers the national monuments, such as the Petrified Forest, and natural and educational reserves.
- “The world Factbook: Argentina”. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- “CIA World Factbook: Argentina”. Retrieved 2012-06-26.
- This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/.
- This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/countries-areas/. (U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets)
- UT Perry–Castañeda Map – Argentina Map Website Map
- Carlevari I. y R. Carlevari. 2007. La Argentina. Geografía económica y humana.14° edición. Alfaomega grupo editor. 543 pp.