Argentina (Spanish: [aɾxenˈtina]), officially the Argentine Republic (Spanish: República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the second-largest in South America after Brazil, and the largest Spanish-speaking nation by area. The sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces (Spanish: provincias, singular provincia) and one autonomous city (Ciudad autónoma), Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of the nation (Spanish: Capital Federal) as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas), and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
The earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times. The country has its roots in the Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century. Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence (1810–1818) was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country’s reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration, mainly Italians and Spaniards, radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook; 62.5% of the population has full or partial Italian ancestry, and the Argentine culture has significant connections to the Italian culture.
The almost unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. According to the Maddison Historical Statistics Project, Argentina had the world’s highest real GDP per capita in 1895 and 1896 and was consistently in the top ten before at least 1920. Currently, it is ranked 61st in the world. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, although it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow and vice president, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency. She was overthrown in 1976 by a military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered thousands of political critics, activists, and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism and civil unrest that lasted over until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983.
Argentina is a developing country and ranks 46th on the Human Development Index, the second-highest in Latin America after Chile. It is a regional power in Latin America and retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina maintains the second-largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, the fifth-largest in the Americas, and is a member of G-15 and G20. It is also a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Mercosur, Community of Latin American and the Caribbean States, and the Organization of Ibero-American States.
Name and etymology
The description of the region by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English, the name “Argentina” comes from the Spanish language; however, the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina (masculine argentino) means in Italian “(made) of silver, silver coloured”, probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine “(made) of silver” > “silver coloured” already mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent “silver” with the suffix -in (same construction as Old French acerin “(made) of steel”, from acier “steel” + -in, or sapin “(made) of fir wood”, from OF sap “fir” + -in). The Italian naming “Argentina” for the country implies Terra Argentina “land of silver” or Costa Argentina “coast of silver”. In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l’Argentina.
The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for “silver” are respectively plata and prata and “(made) of silver” is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although “Argentina” was already in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named “Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata” by the Spanish Empire, and “United Provinces of the Río de la Plata” after independence.
The 1826 constitution included the first use of the name “Argentine Republic” in legal documents. The name “Argentine Confederation” was also commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country’s name as “Argentine Republic”, and that year’s constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as legally valid.
In English, the country was traditionally called “the Argentine”, mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and perhaps resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name ‘Argentine Republic’. ‘The Argentine’ fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, and now the country is simply referred to as “Argentina”.
In Spanish, “Argentina” is feminine (“La [República] Argentina“), taking the feminine article “la”, as the initial syllable of “Argentina” is unstressed.
República Argentina (Spanish)
Sol de Mayo
(Sun of May)
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages|
—62.9% Roman Catholic
—1.4% Other Christian
18.9% No religion
1.2% Other religions
|Government||A federal presidential constitutional republic|
• Vice President
|Cristina Fernández de Kirchner|
• Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers
• President of the Chamber of Deputies
• President of Supreme Court
• Upper house
• Lower house
|Chamber of Deputies|
• May Revolution
|25 May 1810|
|9 July 1816|
|1 May 1853|
|2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi)[B] (8th)|
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
• 2010 census
|14.4/km2 (37.3/sq mi) (214th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
|$1.033 trillion (26th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
|$444.458 billion (25th)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2020)|| 42.9|
|HDI (2019)|| 0.845|
very high · 46th
|Currency||Argentine peso ($) (ARS)|
|Time zone||UTC−3 (ART)|
|Date format||dd.mm.yyyy (CE)|
|ISO 3166 code||AR|