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Computer Networking

Network Fundamentals | Network Access | IP Connectivity | IP Services | Security Fundamentals | Automation and Programmability | SmartLabs 

Configure, verify, and troubleshoot VLANs (normal/extended range) spanning multiple switches

How to configure a normal vlan on a switch.   Study Notes: How to configure a normal vlan on a switch. Normal vlans range from 1 to 1005 Extended vlans range from 1006 to 4094 Depending on your IOS, you may or may not be able to configure extended vlans. Luckily for us, this video…

MAC Address Table

Each network card has a unique identifier called a Media Access Control (MAC) address. This address is used in LANs for communication between devices on the same network segment. Devices that want to communicate the need to know each other MAC addresses before sending out packets. Switches also use MAC addresses to make accurate forwarding or…

How Switches Work

The Ethernet switch has become an integral part of the world’s LAN infrastructure. At its core, the Ethernet is a shared network, each node contending for access to precious bandwidth and dealing with the repercussions of collisions. Before switches, hubs received Ethernet frames and forwarded them to every connected device. There was no privacy or…

Describe and verify switching concepts (MAC learning and aging, Frame switching, Frame flooding, MAC address table)

Overview: This post covers a few important switching concepts that describe how a switch operates including MAC learning and aging, frame switching, frame flooding, and the MAC address table. Study Notes: 2.1.a MAC learning To switch frames between LAN ports efficiently, the switch maintains an address table called the MAC table. When the switch receives…

Understanding MAC Table Aging

A software MAC address table is continued on the Cisco ME 2600X. This MAC address table contains the MAC addresses accomplished on all the interfaces of Cisco ME 2600X. MAC learning To exchange frames between LAN ports efficiently, the switch continues an address table called the MAC table. When the switch receives a frame, it…

Describe Switching Concepts

MAC Learning and Aging Learning mac addresses is one of the responsibilities of a switch. The switch transparently observes incoming frames. All the source mac addresses are recorded in the mac-address-table of the switch. It also associates the specific port with a source MAC address. For each connected device, the mac addresses are different. Frame…

Virtualization Fundamentals in Computer Architecture

In this article, I describe the Virtualization Fundamentals in Computer Architecture for CCNA Exam. We know the servers work to provide various services to its clients. The server is generally installed in a data center at some unique place. The servers are built up with high-end hardware a number of processor and a large memory…

What Is Encryption?

Encryption is the process of converting or scrambling data and information into an unreadable, encoded version that can only be read with authorized access to the decryption key. Encryption is a widely used security tool that can prevent the interception of sensitive data, either while stored in files or while in transit across networks. What…

Radio Frequencies and Wireless Networks

A radio frequency (RF) signal refers to a wireless electromagnetic signal used as a form of communication if one is discussing wireless electronics. Radio waves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with identified radio frequencies that range from 3kHz to 300 GHz. Frequency refers to the rate of oscillation (of the radio waves.) RF propagation…

SSID

When looking to join a wireless network from your smartphone, laptop, or tablet, users are typically presented with a list of names to click on. These names are known as service set identifiers (SSIDs), which can either be the default labels given to the network by the manufacturer or a customised name created by the…

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