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Organization of Operational Units

A combat force is made up of active and reserve components, with different types of units and varying degrees of modernization, and there may be multinational forces and civilian agencies that must operate in synergy. There are also institutional armed forces that support field forces and provide all the necessary support for them.

Task Force is the name given to a temporary grouping of forces designed to carry out a particular mission. Within the package of forces described in the previous paragraph, units are assigned to specific missions, combined according to their capabilities. To these compositions, we designate task force support relationships.

Combined weapons are the set of various types of weapons such as infantry, armor, field artillery, engineers, air defense, and aviation, used with sync and simultaneity, to achieve a greater effect than if each weapon were used separately or in sequence against the enemy. This precept of combining specialist units is a fundamental basis for the organization of operations. The various weapons and services must not, under any circumstances, act concurrently, but in perfect consonance in order to multiply efforts and not duplicate them.

Command and support relationships interrelate the combined arms organization. Command relationships define-command responsibility and authority, while supporting relationships define the purpose, extent, and desired effects when one unit supports another.

Complementary weapons is the concept in which the various weapons and services in a campaign complement each other, creating varied threats to the enemy. When the enemy evades the effects of one type of action, he exposes himself to destruction by another. This leads to their paralysis, destruction, or surrender. A tactical example of the complementary effects is in repressing the defender with artillery while the base weapons maneuver involves him and later destroys him. If the enemy moves to know the threat, he risks destruction by strategically placed fires, and if he stays in place to survive these fires, he risks being surrounded and trapped.

Complementary capabilities protect the weaknesses of one system or organization with the capabilities of another. For example, tanks combine protection, firepower, and mobility, but are vulnerable to mines, anti-tank projectiles, hidden infantry, and must travel through restricted avenues of approach. They are particularly vulnerable in urban areas and dense vegetation. Combined the performance of tanks, infantry, and engineers minimizes these vulnerabilities. Infantry maneuver in terrain where armor cannot eliminate hidden threats to tanks, engineers clear obstacles and restore armor to mobility. Protected through light weapons fire, the armor maneuvers to concentrate devastating firepower to support infantry and engineers. Campaign service units support the action of these elements, providing combat capabilities to them while they are protected by them.

Airborne and space sensors as well as surface-based sensors monitor enemy reactions, while pilots and airmen use this information to refine and sharpen procedures. The maneuver of the ground force conquers the terrain and destroys the enemy, who in an attempt to interact with the ground maneuver, leave their areas of protection and expose themselves to airpower and long-range projectiles, thus becoming more vulnerable to the effects of the maneuver. If the enemy tries to hit the air and rear bases with tactical missiles, anti-missile defenses supported by space surveillance systems, airborne or surface-based intercept these weapons. Through the maneuver of forces, one can reach enemy air defenses, air bases, launch areas, command posts, and service units, eliminating tactical and operational threats and causing the enemy’s situation to deteriorate.

Achieving such enhancing effects and complementary resources requires timing, initiative, and versatility. Synchronized action is the basis for complementing and enhancing effects. The initiative can combine units and systems under fluid circumstances of action, often in the absence of orders. Versatility allows new combinations of systems to be developed, creating unprecedented challenges for the adversary. Correctly combined, these effects produce asymmetries used to achieve theater goals.

By Military Series

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